The Comparison of Theories of Personality

Published: 2021-07-01 06:48:10
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Category: Theories, Personality

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Students may compare any two theories of personality, and are required to highlight the main similarities and differences between the two. They should have a paragraph somewhere highlighting each theory's main propositions/ tenets in order to build a strong argument. The most common comparisons you will probably come across will be between psychoanalysis and nonprofessionals, and between psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis and nonprofessionals The mall theorists for these two sections respectively are Sigmund Freud and Carl
Jung. The major similarities lie in their ideas of the preconscious (Freud) and the personal unconscious Nouns) - they need to explain this similarity a bit. Both constructs refer to the part of the psyche that contains memories, thoughts, and emotions that have been momentarily forgotten or stored away and can be recalled back Into the conscious mind. It's not enough to Just highlight that there is a difference. Another salutary Is the Idea of the old (Freud) and the shadow (lung). Both of these constructs indicate that we possess a darker side of ourselves that is driven by animal-like impulses.
Both Freud and Jung acknowledge the existence and function of the ego. Both acknowledge the existence and functionality of the conscious mind. One of the major differences between these two theorists/ approaches Is that Freud placed much more emphasis on sexuality than did Jung. Jung also believed that our personality develops throughout our lifetime whereas Freud believed that personality stopped developing at age 18. Do not award marks for comparisons about Jung or Fraud's personal lives - this is not relevant to the question. If other differences/ similarities have been correctly pointed out, you can reward this.

Psychoanalysis and behaviorism Behaviorism rejects the idea of the unconscious, whereas psychoanalysis is founded on the Idea of the unconscious. Behaviorist's argue that personality develops throughout a lifetime whereas psychoanalysts argue that personality develops up till the age of 18. Behaviorist's: behavior Is driven by experiences of being rewarded or punished for certain behaviors. Psychoanalysts: behavior is driven by internal conflicts between the id, ego, and superego. Behaviorism theory can be scientifically validated; psychoanalytic theory cannot.
A similarity between these theories is that either of them truly accounts for human agency and free will and both have been criticized on this basis Other comparisons The students may use other approaches to compare and contrast to answer the question. This is perfectly fine. The points above are two of the most common ones you are likely to be looking at. Other approaches may include the lifep approach, the trait approach, or the humanistic approach (these are the approaches they have covered so far In lectures) They may compare and contrast any two theories, as long the two theories.
It is not sufficient to only highlight their similarities or to only gaslight their differences. The main tenets of each theory are outlined below. Use your discretion in looking at how the students have made their comparisons. The lifep approach Main proponent/ theorist was Erik Erikson who was described as an ego psychologist. He was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis) and his theories and therefore we may see many similarities in their theories particularly in the stages of development.
Personality develops throughout one's lifetime (and does not stop at 18 as Freud suggested). Erikson was much more interested in the influence of the social environment on the individual whereas his influencer, Freud, placed more emphasis on the sexual dimension of development. Erikson: psychosocial stages of development; Freud: psychosocial stages of development. Erikson criticized for male bias; Freud criticized for his sexist account of development. Both theorists believed women to be inferior to men in their development.
The trait approach Main proponent is Raymond Chattel Believed that our traits can be used to predict our behavior Surface traits = overt behaviors that people show consistently Source traits = underlying source of reface traits Chattel developed PUFF questionnaire to determine most prominent traits in an individual McCrae and Costa developed the 5 factor model of personality: openness; conscientiousness; extroversion; agreeableness; neurotics The humanistic approach Main proponents: Carl Rogers and Abraham Moscow Rogers believed that all humans have one basic need: unconditional positive regard Moscow believed that we have a hierarchy of needs, and our fixations at any one level of the hierarchy will determine the type of personality which we develop Mascots theory lacks scientific rigor

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