NHRD goes beyond employment and preparation for employment issues to include health, culture, safety, community, and a host of other considerations that have not typically been perceived as manpower planning or human capital investment. Furthermore, within the growing concept of national and regional open-systems thinking, it is becoming evident that there is a need for a unified ,synthesized approach to such planning within each country or region. National human resource development is emerging in many contexts as the answer to this problem.
It is seen as incorporating, in some cases, and going beyond, in other cases, traditional countrywide 5-year development plans that are often too static to allow for rapid response to the growing Issue Overview dynamics of globalization. Several countries in the world are now moving intentionally in these direction . Such countries, including but not limited to the Republic of Korea (South Korea), New Zealand, Singapore, India, South Africa, Kenya, and many more, have developed a radical approach to NHRD.
A question that is widely asked within human resource development is what is NHRD? (McLean, 2001; uona&Roth, 2000). McLean and McLean (2001) explored the range of definitions of HRD in worldwide context and concluded that definitions vary considerably internationally in scope of activities, intended audiences, and beneficiaries. Factors influencing variations in definition by country include the economy, the influence of government and legislation, and the influence of other countries.
McLean and McLean (2001) proposed a beginning attempt at a cross-national definition of human resource development: Human resource development is any process or activity that, either initially or over the long term, has the potential to develop work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity. There are a number of reasons why this topic is important to the field of HRD: • For many countries, human resources are their primary resource.
Without natural resources, many countries must look to their human resources to meet the needs of their people. Japan and Korea are prime examples of countries that have succeeded because of their emphasis on human resources when they do not have access to natural resources. • Human resources are critical for national and local stability. Countries that do not have sustainable development and that have high unemployment rates leading to high levels of poverty are countries that reflect a lack of stability. Developing human resources is one approach to alleviating these conditions. If the cycles of welfare, poverty, violence, unemployment, illiteracy, and socially undesirable employment are to be broken, integrated and coordinated mechanisms for people to develop need to be provided. • Beyond economics, HRD has the potential to improve individuals’ quality of work life. • There is increased need to deal with the ambiguity of global coopetition (the simultaneous need for cooperation and competition). Many small countries, in particular, are finding that it is essential to cooperate with their neighbors even when they are competitors (e. g. the many small islands of the Caribbean that are competing for tourists). • Demographics of many developed countries, among other explanations, suggesta potential labor scarcity (fewer younger workers with an aging workforce that does not have the requisite, current skill sets), requiring some coordinated response from industry and government agencies. • The impact of AIDS/HIV on the workforce, especially in developing countries, is potentially damaging to the present and future workforce as well as to the economy of the countries. A response is required to diminish the incidence and impact of AIDS/HIV.
A national HRD policy is one approach that is being used to do this. • Increased productivity is a major goal for most countries. National HRD may assist in the development of productivity. • Dynamic changes in technology create pressure to upgrade all human resources. Different countries try to create a own definition for NHRD according to their features like national goals and strategies in development plans, their current issues in economic, social and cultural dimensions and also permanent attitude and views between policymakers and professionals. Cox , J. Ben*, *Arkobi* , *khadija* Al and Estrada , Samuel D. (2006), National Human Resource Development in Transitioning Societies in the Developing World : Morocco , Advances in Develop Human Resources , 8; 84 Lynham, Susan A. , Cunningham, Peter W. (2006), National Human Resource Development in Transitioning Societies in The Developing World :Concept and Challenges , Advances in Developing Human Resources , 8; 116 *Min, Zhang, Xiaco*(2006), the Strategy of Chinese Government for Developing Human Resources, Asian HRD Conference.
Rao, T. V. (2004). Human Resource Development as National Policy in *India*. Advanced in Developing Human Resources. 6; 288 *Wang, Greg G. , Korte*, Russell F. and Sun , Judy Y. (2008). Development Economics Wang , Greg G. , Swanson, Richard A. ,(2008), The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology , Human Resource Development Review, 7; 79 10.