To write this essay, I offered to online articles about China and South Korea. China and South Korea share East Aslant culture and Confucianism and thus have similarities but also have many differences. I will examine the demagnification history of South Korea and discuss whether demagnification of China would be possible and suggest possible ways of China being democratic. Readers of this essay will be informed and understand more about South Koreans political path and able to expect what may cause China to be democratic.
Introduction China is a country with the biggest number of population of more than 1. 3 billion, which contributes one fifth of the global population. In terms of land area, China Is the second-largest country. China's place In the world Is getting bigger in a fast pace and It even threatens the power of U. S. If this fast economic growth of China goes on at this rate, It may even surpass U. S and become the largest economic power. Some argue that china already contributes to the growth of world economy more than the Currently, as the world leader, the U. S. As big responsibilities on the world and is very influential on other countries' matters. It intervenes with politics of other entries, sending military to solve conflicts in other countries and protecting and supporting their allies. For example, the U. S send military to Iraq in order to protect diplomatic facilities and personnel in Baghdad and there are about 37 thousands of the U. S soldiers residing in South Korea in order to protect South Korea from possible attack by North Korea. Being world leader means ability to influence other countries' matters.
But what if China becomes the world leader in future? There is a huge possibility of China becoming the world leader in future if we take into account the fact that China s the most populous country in the world. Will China be better leader than America? Will China more intervene in other countries' matters than the U. S. Do? Will the world become better or worse place if China take the leadership? My expectation is that if China becomes the world leader, China will intervene with other countries' affairs like the U. S. Do or more than what U. S. O. The outcome of Chinese intervention must be negative in my expectation, major because China is not democratic. ( I consider democracy as more advanced form of a government than authoritarian government. If we cannot stop China being more influential on the world affairs, will there be any way of China being democratic? Will China fare better with democracy? Method and materials I searched Google and Wisped with keywords such as China political system, China, South Korea, 4 19 revolution, Gangue movement, and June democratic uprising.
Also, I used Korean Website called Never to find more about history of democracy establishment of Korea. Various articles regarding politics of China and South Korea are covered. Results and discussions Comparison between China and South Korea China had been a leader of East Asia which spread culture, philosophies and new innovations to Korea and Japan. Ancient Chinese considered themselves as the centre of the world and referred other countries around China as inferior tribes, referring them as barbarians.
China called other countries and ethnic groups as (Eastern Barbarian), Barbarian), Barbarian) and (Northern Barbarian). Meanwhile, Chosen Dynasty of Korea, which existed Just before Japanese Occupation of South Korea, considered all other countries, except for China and Korea, as barbarians, especially disrespecting Japan. Ancient Koreans thought giggly of China as more developed country and had several cultural exchanges and trades. We can see that Chinese had strong prides about their country and Koreans showed special respect towards China.
Although ancient china was one of the most developed countries in the world, Chinese economy had been stagnant after the Korea also adopted strong Confucianism, setting Confucianism as basic principles of governance, and regarded studying such as Science as somewhat unimportant compared to learning Confucianism value. Although China and Korea both thought highly of Confucianism, both of them were negatively impacted by it in fields of economy, politics and overall development. Both China and Korea have a history of Japanese invasion Just before the end of World War 2.
Entire Korea was colonized by Japan between 1910 and 1945 and major cities in China were taken over by the Japanese from 1937 to 1945. Both China and South Korea were impoverished and one of the poorest country in the world after World War 2, but achieved economic growth in the recent decades under authoritarian government, led by government, through industrialization and exports. South Korea is now almost developed country and China is currently the second largest economy of the world but still a developing country. South Korea produces and exports more technologically advanced goods than China.
Now, China is rapidly developing but South Koreans development is slowed down. One of the major difference between South Korea and China is that South Korea is democratic while China is authoritarian government with civilian dictatorship. China is run by a single party, the Communist Party of China. South Korea has relatively free media and internet access. China is very different from South Korea when it comes to freeness of media and the internet. China blocks more than 2,700 websites including Google, Backbone, and Youth and replaced them as their own version, used only among Chinese.
China blocks these website in order for Chinese not to receive any external information that may make Chinese to go against the government. How democratic transformation could occur in South Korea The Republic of Korea was formally established on 15 August 1948, three years after Japanese government announced surrender to the Allies in World War 2. In constitution, it was written that South Korea is democratic republic but it was not in reality. There are three big movements which contributed to demagnification of South Korea, namely, April 19 Revolution, Gangue uprising, and June Democratic Uprising.
April 19 Revolution happened against 1960 vice fraudulent presidential election manipulated by by-then president Rhea. Students and citizens protested against dictatorship of by-then president Rhea which resulted in resignation of Rhea. However, South Korea was soon under dictatorship again by Park Chunk-he who launched a coup d'©tat and established military government. Gangue uprising or May 18th Democratic uprising is a movement in 1980, in which Gangue citizens took up weapons against government troops when the government June Democratic Uprising happened in June 1987.
Large-scale protests by citizens resulted in elections being hold and occurrence of democratic reforms which caused establishment of present democracy of South Korea. Thus, this movement can be viewed as the most significant milestone for establishment of democracy in South Korea. South Koreans democracy was achieved by students' and citizens' demonstrations. The intensity of demonstration for democracy strengthened and number of people participating in movements increased as time passes during sass to sass South Koreans establishment of democracy was followed by economic growth.
South Koreans democracy was achieved by students' and citizens' demonstrations. According to a reach done by Robert Barron, in general, increase in average income is followed by increase in level of democracy. South Korea is one of the cases. As average income rises, there are more voices for democracy. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that as income rises, citizens do not worry much about making a living anymore and start to care about right which they had neglected. Democracy confers more right to citizens than authoritarian regimes.
Democracy is desirable In my opinion, democracy is superior to autocracy is that democracy. In democracy, citizens are able to elect or fire their leaders in a regular basis, resulting in having a proper leader who can guide the nation to path of economic growth and good governance. Also, a government represent civilians and protects individual right with decentralized, local government bodies. Also, freedom is often associated with democracy. Democratic country grants citizens freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion and free media and press.
In non-democratic country, the media is usually not free, and any expression against the government may cause one to be imprisoned. In democracy, people's will can be expressed though elections and normal citizens can participate in politics. Democracy values cooperation and compromise regardless of gender, age, ethnic group, religion and all other different categories of groups. Democratic government tries to listen to voices of all communities, protecting rights to be different. Chinese government does not want democracy As China is getting more important in the global community, it is becoming more influential on other countries.
One thing that I am worried about a situation in which China being leader of the world is that China is not democratic and it may influence there countries to follow a government form of China's authoritarian regime or impede other countries being democratic. If China becomes the world leader, some countries' government might take step back to worse form of governance. In 2005, Beijing released its first white paper on political democracy but stated that their democracy is a "Socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics".
The communist parties and thus they subdue any opposition movements. Also, China is comprised of majority of Han Chinese and 55 other ethnic minority groups. China includes areas like Tibet, Jinxing and Hong Kong, regions not integrated into Chinese culture. If Chinese government do not block websites such as Google, Youth and Backbone, it will be more difficult for them to govern these areas since Chinese in other regions may hear the news of protests for independence in these areas and there might be people in other areas who listen to their voices.
Freedom of media is one of important characteristics of democracy. If China chooses to be democratic, media will be freer and it is disadvantageous to Chinese government. There will be higher possibility of Tibet and Jinxing to be independent and Chinese government obviously do not want that. It can be concluded that authoritarianism in China might be a necessary evil. China may be democratic in the long run When we consider the Communist Party firm grip on power, demagnification may not occur in near future.
However, As I mentioned earlier, rise in average income result in increase of people wanting democracy. It can be expected that Chinese people will want democracy more as average income rises, as time passes. Also, as Chinese become more affluent, they will travel or study at developed countries which have democracy and learn benefits of democracy. They may want democracy back at home. 989 Chinese Democracy Movement 2011 and Chinese pro-democracy protests show that some Chinese already want democracy.
In the long run, as time passes, Chinese government might be unable to maintain current authoritarian policies of government as there will be stronger demands for democracy from its citizens and there will be larger-scale demonstrations for democracy. It may needs to continuously make more democratic political reforms such as giving citizens more freedom of speech, or loosening censorship on media and the internet, allowing Chinese citizens' access to websites such as Backbone, Google and Youth. Conclusion Democracy has been accompanied with capitalism and free market in many countries.