There is an increasing trend to employees changing jobs more frequently, while employees in some cultures and economies stay with one job during their career. For example, an individual's career could involve being an engineer, though the individual could work for several different firms and in several different areas of engineering over a lifetime. Consequently, this continuous process that involves the progression of an individual through many stages of life and every stage has its own issues, terms and tasks are called as career development (Decision Werner and Harris, 2008).
This Is a major aspect of human development where it is the process how the Individual form their work Identity. The career development extents for inure Lifetime when It begins with a person's earliest awareness of the ways In which people make a living and continues as they explores the new professions. It may or probably will include changing the careers and jobs when people ultimately decides what career to pursue, prepares for it, applies for and gets a job and advances in it.
Based on DRP. Donald Super which is one of the pioneers in the field of career development, argued that people pass through five career stages during their life p. Fundamentally, these sequential generalizations often provide a useful mainframe to understand the career transitions that people will face in adulthood. Once people mastered of certain tasks for each stage, that will allow them to function successfully for every stages and make them to prepare well and move on to the next task.
Each stage Is loosely affiliated with a chronological period and is characterized by work attitudes, types of relationships, behaviors, and the aspects of work that are valued. Stage 1 Is the growth process which the early years from 4 to 13 years old. This stage is a time when the individual first becomes aware of the future. People ill try to find ways to develop their competencies and increase control over their life. Meanwhile, for the exploration process at stage 2 that is from the early teens to mid- twenties, people begin to form, specify and implement an occupational choice.
People will try to play deferent roles in various occupational options and will be explored though school, leisure, part-time work and volunteering. Before people firmly finding a more stable and appropriate fit for their jobs, "trial Jobs" may be tested by them. The third stage is the establishment process in between the mid- twenties through mid-forties. In this stage, people typically select a suitable field in their professions area and efforts are made to secure a long-term place In the chosen career.
Young adulthood tends to be a time for stabilizing, consolidating, building momentum and moving up. Obtaining certifications, credentials, and advanced degrees may be the norm (Worded). At the fourth stage which is the maintenance constancy which means holding on (stagnating or palliating), or keeping up (updating or enriching), continuity, stress, safety and stability tend to be the standard (Worded). Lastly, the final phase of career development is the disengagement recess which around mid-flies. It is typically marked by ready to retire, maintains the respects but still productive.
This stage should be more appropriately named reinvestment as they are completely redesigning the notion of retirement preferring to work in some form while pursuing new or renewed outside interests. In later adulthood, people in this stage may be a need to assist or mentor younger members of society or try to seek self-employment to fulfill their free time. However, based on all of the stages been discussed earlier, people in the mid-forties to mid-flies are at different stage in their career and life than people that is at age 25 or 45.
A career change after age 40 can be a tricky situation. In this stage, people will decide whether to continue along the same track because it is comfortable familiar and secure or change into the other career since there is an opportunity to pursue new personal or professional goals. This stage is called as middle career years or mid-career change. According to MUM textbook, mid-career means re-appraise early career and early adulthood, reaffirm or modify goals, make choices appropriate to middle adult years ND remain productive.
Mid-career is a time in which one is more likely to consider leaving a current Job in order to take work in an organization that might indicate promise of greater career fulfillment or address a need for increased salary or benefits, intrinsic and extrinsic (Worded). After 40, many people begin to look at life differently which they often begin to feel that life really is too short to be stuck in a dead-end or unsatisfying Job.
In this middle age situation, it is a time in which adults take on new responsibilities at the workplace and therefore, people of this age often eel a need to reappraise previous life structures with an eye to making revisions 'while there is still time' (Yuck, 1997). Sometimes people feel risk adverse with various career options which may lead to frustration or even depression. It may also be boring, dull, and unsatisfying. People at this stage already have their own skills and the abilities in contributing a fairly good idea.
There will be variety of reasons why people try to change their career. The four reasons why people change their career are due to the career plateau, obsolescence, career change and feeling undervalued. I. Career plateau By definition, a career plateau is a point in the career of an employee where the possibility of vertical promotion within the official hierarchy becomes very low or absent altogether (Worded). People will often reach career plateaus when they continue to work for the same organization for a long time and those who belong to the core of an organization.
The feeling of boredom, frustration, tension, loss of On the other hand, career plateau also occurs when there is no further development of one's skills and abilities. One's personal development and growth are stagnating or people stop learning or even unable to upgrade the skills. A lack of technical skill or career skill may lead to an individual's lack of promotional opportunity or the desire to move into a higher-level position. Either for professional or personal reasons, many people experience the situation at one point during their career of becoming 'stuck' with little or no movement up the career ladder.
It possibly occurs due to lack of opportunities within the organization when there is limited or no upward movement within the organization. It means that, there have fewer positions than aspirants at each higher level of the organizational ladder in the pyramidal structure f organizations. Sometimes, some people has the ability to perform effectively in a higher-level position, but a lack of Job openings may prevent their promotion. This is called as structural plateau. Frustration will arise when there is a lack of promotional aspects and lead them to look for other opportunities elsewhere. T. Obsolescence Obsolescence refers to a state of being no longer useful or limited in use, old- fashioned or that which can be easily dispensed with or discarded. Just like obsolete tools and equipment, employees also get obsolete (Goriest Kinsman, 2012). It means hat, people who are employed in organizations is lack up-to-date of necessary knowledge, skills, techniques, technologies and lack of new work processes to maintain effective performance in their current or future work role.
The reason that causes of obsolescence are due to individual himself, his ability and ability to learn on the basis of continuous education and some reasons are due to the companies, which in their lack of ability to develop and implement a plan of action to reduce obsolescence phenomenon, and lack of facilitating the educational activities rather than Just approve them. It can be like a continuum if the people feel that they lack of awareness of change, complacency, lack of confidence, and resistance to change.
Further, it could be affecting them at the affective level when it comes to behavior patterns. These could be in terms of an individual feeling lack of competence in self, lack of career progression opportunities or limited opportunities and the lack of initiative to update oneself (Chuan, 2009). When this habit eventually grows into an obsession, people will feel no desire to work hard, improve or go out of their way to be felt at work. But sometimes, there are other reasons why people feel obsolete and it comes from the organization itself.
It makes people have no interest to do their Job since there is a mismatch between the person and the Job, lack of autonomy or non- involvement in decision-making. Besides, the impediments from the boss as he is non-supportive, and the organizational policies and practices like ineffective performance appraisal system which lack of reward or recognition and inappropriate promotion policy. Iii. Career change In midlife career, there are some reasons to consider people leaving the current Job ND looking for a new opportunity.
Some of them are really need to settle their lifestyle, career stability and professional challenges with minimum risks. Even there will be possible for them to have all of these needs, they have to try to relocate in order to gain promote, income and challenge. Normally employees change career due to personal dissatisfaction, or environmental factors such as Job loss, threat of in reward system or increased Job demands (MUM textbook). People will feel dissatisfaction when they feel the workplace culture becomes corrupted and begins to impact your performance and ability to advance.
Besides, they feel that the Job are too stressful while the stress can become too much to handle. Some other reasons are due to financial stability, meaningfulness of Job, change in lifestyle and so on. 'v. Feeling undervalued People working in a Job that fails to play to their strengths, in an environment where they are underused will have no gift to productivity rates. There is nothing more demoralizing in the workplace than feeling undervalued by the bosses. This misalignment in distributive Justice is a major contributor to Job dissatisfaction.
When they feel undervalued and unappreciated at the workplace, regardless of what repression or industry that they are working in, they will begin to lack energy and commitment in their role. They also may leave to go to another Job where they feel that their work and input is more valued. Poor personnel management practices also be another cause such as people feel that they are Just cogs in a machine, are seen as children, feel ignored, or are not recognized, management needs to take the time to look at the system that is in place (Worded).
What people need is the workplace culture has to change and managers will have to redirect their attention to fostering a team spirit. On the other hand, people will clearly not feel valued if their working area is in disrepair and the computers are unreliable and outdated. The best way to find out what may potentially cause employees to feel undervalued is to request feedback from the team members. Lastly, other signs that employees may suffer from feelings of being undervalued are inexpressive or abusive managers or, and a low quality in work environment or equipment (Worded).
Below are the steps that need to be considered on mid-career change by Thee Debacle: Step 1 Analyze your current situation-specifically any changing desires, unanticipated vents, aging, expectations of others, burnout, and anything else that is affecting your current career. It is time for people make an analysis when they realize that they are no longer applicable to the organization. For example, people are no longer interested to that Job are, want to do something completely different, boredom, have high expectation and want to get new opportunities, financial freedom, obsolete in skills and techniques, undervalued and so on.
Step 2 Assess interests, values and skills. Explore your passion, hobbies and any other interests that can be developed into potential career opportunities. If people really want to change their career, then they have to target a career that is aligned with interested in Malaysian history but they want to be a banker. Look deeply for points of relevance between the two. Take this example which Malaysia is a pioneer of Islamic banking, which is growing as a sector in Britain. A conventional British bank may be interested in their understanding of Malaysian heritage if it is looking to launch Shari-compliant financial products (Worded).
Step 3 Identify the three most important priorities for changing your career. Obtain information about career opportunities and determine what kind of new career to start. The three most important priorities are maybe about the satisfaction or interested Job that people wanted to do, financial freedom which they try to find higher payment from the other organization and also the skills and abilities that is similar. For example, a manufacturer will always be a manufacturer, and he or she can manufacture almost anything, give or take a few differences in the nature of the production (Worded).
Step 4 Develop a Re-career roadman to ensure a successful transition. Write down career Laos, gather information about prospective careers and make necessary decisions to pursue opportunities that may arise. For example, write out on a piece of paper into two columns which are "what I like" and "what I hate" about the present situation. Do this exercise for all of the Jobs, internships, research assistantships, and volunteer and leadership experiences throughout the career to compare them to the current job (Liana G. Levine, 2011).
Step 5 Establish an action plan that is built upon realistic expectations and which draws upon available resources. For example, by identifying what people loved and loathed bout each experience, they can map out exactly what it is they want to change, why now is the time they want to make the change, and where they want to go. Since they are the decision-maker, they have an incredible amount of power to make the decision. (Liana G. Levine, 2011). Step 6 Identify and overcome resources barriers. Do not be scared of doing something totally different.
Just because they worked in the private sector for 30 years, for example, does not mean people cannot shift to the public sector. They can teach old dog new tricks. Do not be boxed in by where they think the boundaries are. He age is not a boundary but a benefit as they have the experience and maturity you need to make and cope with major changes in your life (Worded). Step 7 Turn to personal contacts into career stakeholders. Before people make a change, they need to find out what the career and Job really involve.
For example, many careers, ranging from interior design to financial planning, may involve selling services in addition to performing them. Or may be enticed by the high average salary of their dream Job, only to find that it is a field where a few people make a lot and most people make very little. To get the real story, elk to people who work in the field they are targeting. Mid-life can find them though in the field (Margaret Steen). Step 8 Experiment, learn, take risks and network to create new career structures.
Try to make a contingency plan no matter how much time and thought people put into developing a detailed plan, they must also plan for when their plan does not come to fruition. For example, according to Liana G. Levine, 2011, "say you want to transition out of academia and into industry. You do extensive research to identify 10-15 companies where you would like to work, you transform your C.V. into an industry- roundly resume, you network, you apply for Jobs, you do informational interviews, and still you are not able to land a Job in the timeshare you outlined in your original plan. Step 9 Learn how to deal with doubt and uncertainty as the new career unfolds. Continue from the example above base on Liana G. Levine, 2011, muff must be flexible, and you must build that flexibility as well as contingencies into your strategy. So if you do not get a particular Job for which you aim, you can expand your search parameters, and determine what else interests you, or research what additional skills and expertise is needed to get back on track. " Step 10 Implement actionable strategies to achieve new career goals.
Make sure mid-life have to develop a plan that includes timeliness and deadlines, major goals and daily goals, and steps to take to achieve each milestone. For example, if your overall goal is to stay in academia but move to Japan and do your research there, then daily goals may include networking and contacting potential collaborators, exploring what are the right institutions and labs for your investigations, and researching the culture, language and funding opportunities available in the country (Worded). Step 1 1 Invest in re-training programs that will build on your existing expertise and knowledge.
For example, people have to attend the workshop in order to upgrade their skills, techniques and also their experiences in order to get high Job expectations. Step 12 Look at the mid-career transition realistically to manage emotions such as fear, anxiety, or a sense of loss. For example, acknowledge the inner fear instead of ignoring it. Try to be confident in developing the new career since people in the mid- life already have their own capabilities of experiences, knowledge, skills and techniques. They no need to feel guilty once they shift their Job.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL EFFECTS AS A RESULT OF MID-CAREER CHANGE once people have confirmed changing their career, they may wonder about the effects a career change may have. It is true that, a career change represents a potential opportunity to pursue an interest you may have held for many years. However, the process of changing careers also involves potential consequences either in the psychological and also social effects that have to be considered. The effects are obstacle to self- management, additional education and training, income and Job status uniqueness, improved sense of well-being and retirement funds. . Obstacle to Self-Management Midlife career change is defined as a change "when age is a factor. " Increasing in age inappropriateness in terms of age discrimination will occur since the career was change at age forties. Age discrimination is when a person is treated less favorably than another person in a similar situation, because of their age (Worded). For example, it could be 'direct age discrimination' if an older applicant is not considered for a Job because it is assumed that they are not as up to date with technology as a younger person (obsolescence).
It is also age discrimination when there is a rule or policy that is the same for everyone but has an unfair effect on people of a particular age. This is called 'indirect discrimination'. It also will effect to the behavior of the mid-career shifter such as the behavior and also self-image. Sometimes, the employers Just pay a little attention to the mid-career worker. It. Additional Education and Training Sometimes, as mid-career changers find that they need additional education or training to qualify for their new vocations even though they have a lot of experience about the previous Job before.
As they becoming older, sometimes they are always lack of new changes like technologies, techniques and skills. For example, a lecturer may involve enrolling in a formal degree program to earn an associates, bachelors or master's degree, or even a doctorate or professional degree in order to meet the qualifications to teach. Meanwhile other mid-career changers involve vocational training, either within a vocational school program or as an apprentice, intern or trainee due to improve their skills and knowledge.
Thus, due to these changes, the mid-career changers must finance all or part of their own training and education. Ii. Income and Job Status Consequences As mention at the second effect, professionals who pursue career changes at mid- career may suffer financial consequences that affect them and their families alike. Career changers who enroll in college or vocational school full time often suffer a dramatic decrease in income while they are enrolled in classes and until they find employment in their new careers.
Career changers also frequently find themselves starting over in entry-level positions in their new vocations or professions. In addition, some career changes involve accepting dramatic salary cuts. For example, a career changes from a diploma lecturer to become a degree lecturer. Lb. Improved Sense of Well-Being Not all of the effects of switching careers are detrimental. In fact, many career changers enjoy an enhanced sense of well-being. Decreased stress on the Job is another beneficial effect many career changers enjoy.
Others enjoy a boost in income or improved relationships with their spouses or partners and their families. Career changes also frequently involve using skills that the career changer had used in pursuing a hobby, and in such cases, the new profession can prove to be especially enjoyable. V. Retirement Funds Changing Jobs or careers may also mean dealing with retirement funds invested in the employer-based retirement plan. The options vary depending on the circumstances of the individual career changer.
Some career changers roll over their funds into a retirement plan funded by their new employers or to an individual retirement account. Other career changers opt to cash out their employer-based retirement plans. Career is the progress and actions of the person's occupations or sequence of Jobs held by someone throughout a lifetime which is until that person end up the careers. Most of the situations, people do not Just referring to one position only but often looking for another Jobs which composed of the Jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time.
This is a major aspect of human development where it is the process how the individual form their work identity. The career development extents for entire lifetime when it begins with a person's earliest awareness of the ways in which people make a living and continues as they explores the new professions. It may or probably will include changing the careers and Jobs hen people ultimately decides what career to pursue, prepares for it, applies for and gets a Job and advances in it.
There are 5 stages in the career development which starts on growth process which the early years from 4 to 13 years old, the exploration process at stage 2 that is from the early teens to mid-twenties, the third stage which establishment process in between the mid-twenties through mid-forties, fourth stage which is the maintenance process is usually happens in the mid-forties to mid-flies and the final phase of career development is the disengagement process which around mid-flies. The issue here is about the fourth stage which is the situation for mid-career changers which begin from the age of 40.
A lot of reasons have been discussed about the factors that influencing mid-career changers. Four reasons why people change their career are due to the career plateau, obsolescence, career change and feeling undervalued. Also, there are twelve steps need to be considered when making mid-career changers and has been discussed at the above explanations. Lastly, five psychological and social effects as result of mid- career changes been issued which are obstacles to self-management, additional education and training, income and Job status consequences, improved sense of well-being and retirement funds.
In a conclusion, effective decision-making is necessary to the employer's peaceful mind before making mid-life career changes. Try to think which the best Job that will satisfy ourselves is, and what kind of Job that we like the most. Try to be considering what is good and what is bad if we change our career. At least we will never regret once we retire later. REFERENCES 1 . MUM textbook, Career Planning And Development 2. William J. Retells, (2008): Working Longer, New Strategies for Managing, Training, ND Retaining Older Employees.